Some of the tests we use were developed as long ago as the l930’s for dogs bred to become Guide Dogs.  Then in the 1950’s, studies on puppies were done to determine how quickly they learned.  These studies were actually done to identify children’s learning stages. 

Top Dog Tips: The ideal age to test the puppy is at 49 days of age when the puppy is neurologically complete and it has the brain of an adult dog. With each passing day after the 49th day the responses will be tainted by prior learning. 

Later on in the early 60’s more tests were developed to determine if pups could be tested for dominance and submission.  These tests determined that it was indeed possible to predict future behavioral traits of adult dogs by testing puppies at 49 days of age.  Testing before or after that age, effected the accuracy of the test, depending on the time before or after the 49th day. 

We took these tests, added some of our own, and put together what is now known as the Volhard Puppy Aptitude Test, or PAT.  PAT uses a scoring system from 1-6 and consists of ten tests.  The tests are done consecutively and in the order listed.  Each test is scored separately, and interpreted on its own merits.  The scores are not averaged, and there are no winners or losers.  The entire purpose is to select the right puppy for the right home. 

The tests are as follows: 

1. Social Attraction - degree of social attraction to people, confidence or dependence.   

2. Following - willingness to follow a person. 

3. Restraint - degree of dominant or submissive tendency, and ease of handling in difficult situations.

4. Social Dominance - degree of acceptance of social dominance by a person. 

5. Elevation - degree of accepting dominance while in a position of no control, such as at the veterinarian or                groomer. 

6. Retrieving - degree of willingness to do something for you. Together with Social Attraction and Following a         key indicator for ease or difficulty in training.

7. Touch Sensitivity - degree of sensitivity to touch and a key indicator to the type of training equipment required.

8. Sound Sensitivity - degree of sensitivity to sound, such as loud noises or thunderstorms. 

9. Sight Sensitivity - degree of response to a moving object, such as chasing bicycles, children or squirrels.

10. Stability - degree of startle response to a strange object. 

During the testing make a note of the heart rate of the pup, which is an indication of how it deals with stress, as well as its energy level.  Puppies come with high, medium or low energy levels.  You have to decide for yourself, which suits your life style.  Dogs with high energy levels need a great deal of exercise, and will get into mischief if this energy is not channeled into the right direction.

Finally, look at the overall structure of the puppy.  You see what you get at 49 days age.  If the pup has strong and straight front and back legs, with all four feet pointing in the same direction, it will grow up that way, provided you give it the proper diet and environment in which to grow.  If you notice something out of the ordinary at this age, it will stay with puppy for the rest of its life.  He will not grow out of it.


Here are the ground rules for performing the test:

    The testing is done in a location unfamiliar to the puppies. This does not mean they have to taken away from  home.  A 10-foot square area is perfectly adequate, such as a room in the house where the puppies have not been.

    The puppies are tested one at a time.

    There are no other dogs or people, except the scorer and the tester, in the testing area

    The puppies do not know the tester.

    The scorer is a disinterested third party and not the person interested in selling you a puppy.

    The scorer is unobtrusive and positions him or herself so he or she can observe the puppies’ responses without having to move.  

    The puppies are tested before they are fed. 

    The puppies are tested when they are at their liveliest. 

    Do not try to test a puppy that is not feeling well. 

    Puppies should not be tested the day of or the day after being vaccinated.

    Only the first response counts!


Top Dog Tips: During the test, watch the puppy’s tail.  It will make a difference in the scoring whether the tail is up or down.

The tests are simple to perform and anyone with some common sense can do them.  You can, however, elicit the help of someone who has tested puppies before and knows what they are doing.

1. Social attraction - the owner or caretaker of the puppies places it in the test area about four feet from the tester and then leaves the test area.  The tester kneels down and coaxes the puppy to come to him or her by encouragingly and gently clapping hands and calling.  The tester must coax the puppy in the opposite direction from where it entered the test area.  Hint:  Lean backward, sitting on your heels instead of leaning forward toward the puppy.  Keep your hands close to your body encouraging the puppy to come to you instead of trying to reach for the puppy. 

2. Following - the tester stands up and slowly walks away encouraging the puppy to follow.  Hint:  Make sure the puppy sees you walk away and get the puppy to focus on you by lightly clapping your hands and using verbal encouragement to get the puppy to follow you.  Do not lean over the puppy. 

3. Restraint - the tester crouches down and gently rolls the puppy on its back and holds it on its back for 30 seconds.  Hint:  Hold the puppy down without applying too much pressure.  The object is not to keep it on its back but to test its response to being placed in that position. 

4. Social Dominance - let the puppy stand up or sit and gently stroke it from the head to the back while you crouch beside it.  See if it will lick your face, an indication of a forgiving nature.  Continue stroking until you see a behavior you can score.  Hint:  When you crouch next to the puppy avoid leaning or hovering over the puppy.  Have the puppy at your side with both of you facing in the same direction. 

Top Dog Tips: During testing maintain a positive, upbeat and friendly attitude toward the puppies.  Try to get each puppy to interact with you to bring out the best in him or her.  Make the test a pleasant experience for the puppy. 

5. Elevation Dominance - the tester cradles the puppy with both hands, supporting the puppy under its chest and gently lifts it two feet off the ground and holds it there for 30 seconds. 

6. Retrieving - the tester crouches beside the puppy and attracts its attention with a crumpled up piece of paper.  When the puppy shows some interest, the tester throws the paper no more than four feet in front of the puppy encouraging it to retrieve the paper. 

7. Touch Sensitivity - the tester locates the webbing of one the puppy’s front paws and presses it lightly between his index finger and thumb.  The tester gradually increases pressure while counting to ten and stops when the puppy pulls away or shows signs of discomfort. 

8. Sound Sensitivity - the puppy is placed in the center of the testing area and an assistant stationed at the perimeter makes a sharp noise, such as banging a metal spoon on the bottom of a metal pan. 

9. Sight Sensitivity - the puppy is placed in the center of the testing area.  The tester ties a string around a bath towel and jerks it across the floor, two feet away from the puppy. 

10. Stability - an umbrella is opened about five feet from the puppy and gently placed on the ground. 


Following are the responses you will see and the score assigned to each particular response.  You will see some variations and will have to make a judgment on what score to give them.



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